Lesson 18 – Peter Vicar of Christ

The Rock Man

Peace be to you 

Thus, far in these lessons we have stressed the idea that the Church is the Mystical Body of Christ: that it is visible in as much as it has members that walk this earth; it is invisible in as much as Christ is the Invisible Head and the life of it is the Holy Spirit.  We also said that this Church is a society and assembly, a Kahal related in some way to the assembly and Kahal of the Old Testament. And through this Church God is diffusing the merits of Calvary.


The Head of the Body:

Now we come to a point where we wish to show that Peter holds the primacy — primacy not only of Honor but also of Jurisdiction over the Church.  In other words, he is the Vicar of Christ, he is the first pontiff, he is the first Pope.


  • It is very strange that those who admit it with Scripture that the Church is the Mystical Body of Christ who would not also admit a head. After all, how are we to know for example that the body exists in this earth.


  • It is very easy to know that Christ was walking this earth simply because men saw him. Well after His Ascension how would men know his Mystical Body and where His life was to be found?

Our blessed Lord did not leave these questions unanswered and so He gave a sign that we would know his body and the sign was the sign of all living things.


  • How does any life manifest itself? Does not the unity of life manifest itself through the head, which is the source of the movements of the body?  The head is the symbol, is it not, of the unity of life? 
  • Legs and arms can be amputated without destroying the unity of life, but cut off the head and it is the end of life.
  • In the social order does not every club or group or society or nation have a head? Or a president or a king? And even the psychological order it is natural almost that there be a kind of a consciousness of headship.
  • In an infant for example there is a great complex of the crisscrossing of activities, vegetative, emotional and mechanical and vital and so forth but as the child develops gradually it reaches the point where it sums up all of its organic activities in the personal pronoun “I.” It comes to a consciousness of its unity and the center of reference, Namely the primacy of personality.
  • In other words, our blessed Lord established a life here on earth even though he did not name a head. It would eventually in the psychological order have to become conscious of its head.


Church government:

  • But our blessed Lord as we know and as we are going to show did name a head. This happened as we saw in the last lesson at Caesarea Philippi.  It was a half-pagan city and in that city our blessed Lord considered the three possible forms of Church government.
  • How would his Mystical Body be governed? It might be three ways.
  1. 1. Democratic;
  2. The Aristocratic; and
  3. The Theocratic.


The democratic would be one in which the majority vote decides, in which everyone has an entirely different opinion of what is to be.  To be the truth and to be the law.


The Aristocratic is an appeal not so much to the majority or to the masses but rather an appeal to an aristoi, an aristocracy. The house of parliament, the senate, the congress, the house of lords, whatever it be.


The theocratic is one in which God chooses one man, as he chose Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Moses, and guides and protects and directs this man.

Our blessed Lord did not establish his Church without considering all of these possible forms of government.

  • So he began with the democratic and his question was “Who do men say the Son of Man is?” (Ref. Matthew 16:13)
  • Notice men. In other words, if you took a poll, if you took a vote, what is the general opinion concerning me?  What answer did our Lord get?  The answer was, “Some say you are John the Baptist, and others Elias, and other Jeremias, and others one of the prophets.” ( Matthew 16:14)
  • No unity, no certitude, leave the government of the Church to individual interpretation and you get contrary and contradictory views.

Eternal truth was said that not a single iota of his teachings should be changed, could ever accept a government of that kind in which men could not agree, and so he had for it nothing but the withering score of a silence.

  • Next, he appeals to the aristocratic. “Whom do you say that I am?”

(Ref. Matthew 16:15)  “You my 12 apostles, you my aristocracy, you my chosen group, who am I?”

  • There was no answer. First of all, there had been no head appointed as their spokesmen. Furthermore, some of them had doubts. Thomas certainly had doubts, Judas was not very certain of his financial sagacity, Phillip was troubled about relations to the Heavenly Father, so our blessed Lord could not build his Church upon an aristocracy alone.
  • At this point, there is one man without the consent of the others who steps forward and he speaks in the name of all and he gives the right answer. His answer is “Thou art the Christ, the Son of the Living God.”  (ref  Matthew 16:16 )
  • Here is one man with divine illumination, as we shall see, who speaks in the name of all, who makes the confession of the divinity of Christ, who affirms faith in him, who is to be chosen as the Head of His Mystical body. This is the theocratic form of Church government.


Before we go into the text what objections could there be? 

Well one objection that is urged against this particular text is that our blessed Lord did not build his Church on Peter, he built it upon Peter’s confession of faith in his divinity.

Now this is not true because our blessed Lord was addressing Peter in the second person singular.  As we shall see our Lord said to Peter “Blessed art thou.  I will give to thee.  Whatsoever thou shall bind.” (Ref Matthew 16:17-18 )

  • Here there is no confession of faith. Our blessed Lord is speaking in the second person singular to a man whose name he changed from Simon to Rock.


“Blessed art thou.”


Coming back now to our text.  Let us go through briefly some of the words.  Our blessed Lord said to Simon Peter, “Blessed art thou.”  (Ref Matthew 16:17 )

  • We have heard those words before. They were once spoken by an Archangel at the annunciation of Mary.  When the archangel approached Mary to ask her if she would give God a human nature with which he could redeem the world, the angel saluted her, “Blessed art thou.”  (Ref Luke 1:28 )
  • Why “blessed”? Because she was to be given a divine privilege of Motherhood of Christ.  Now likened to the annunciation, our blessed Lord says to Simon Peter, “Blessed art thou.”  (Ref Matthew 16:17 )
  • As Mary was blessed because she was to be the Mother of Christ, the Head of the Mystical Body, so Peter is blessed because he is to be Vicar of Christ and the visible Head of the Mystical Body.


Confession of Peter:

  • And next our blessed Lord said, Simon bar Jonah, blessed art thou, Simon son of John.Our Lord is still calling him by his personal name, that is to say his family name.  Our Lord had already given him another name, the name of Cephas in Aramaic, which means rock, the name of Peter in English.
  • Then our blessed Lord continued. Apropos of the confession of divinity, our blessed Lord said to Peter, “Flesh and blood have not revealed this to thee.” (Matthew 16:17)
  • In other words, “you do not know that I am Christ the Son of God by natural instincts or by reason.” Just as you who are listening to me, do not know, just by reason alone, that Christ is the Son of God.  Your reason gives you motives of credibility but there had to be an illumination from above.
  • Here there is a very special illumination of Peter because he recognizes now that Christ is not only the Messiahs but he is also the Son of the Eternal Father.
  • Remember that all of the apostles were there at Caesarea Philippi and yet our blessed Lord speaks only to one and our Lord continued “And in my turn I say to thee”, to Peter. Note this is going to be personal. “Thou art the Rock.”
  • Notice the parallel between Peter’s confession and our blessed Lord’s transfer of power. Peter said, Thou art the Christ.” Our Lord answers, Thou art the Rock.”  Peter confessed the grandeur of Christ and Christ confesses the grandeur of Peter(Ref Matthew 16:18-19 )

Remember now that Peter’s name is Rock.  It was a new name, it was suited to his office.  Now this word “rock” does not appear here for the first time in Scripture.


Old Testament God is called Rock

  • Throughout the Old Testament God is called Rock. As we are going to see later on that God is also called “Key Bearer”  God is also called “Shepherd.”  Our blessed Lord, in as much as he is the Son of God, is the Rock of the Ages, yet he makes Peter a Rock.


  • Look in the Old Testament and you will find instances of how God is called the Rock. Remember that in the book of Exodus and in the book of Numbers there was a rock that gave forth water and St. Paul later on referring to that says and the “Rock that followed them was Christ”.  In other words that rock that Moses struck was a prefigurement of Christ, who is the Eternal RockThere are 40 references in the Old Testament where God is called a  “Rock.



  • In the book of Daniel, the Messias is called the “…rock who smashes the statue with the feet of clay.” (ref Daniel 2:34 )


  • And our blessed Lord said himself that those who obeyed his commandments would be likened to a house that built upon a Rock.( Matthew 7:24)
  • Now the implication was that, here Christ, the Son of God, who in the Old Testament, in the book of Isaiah, was called the Rock of Israel.  That this Christ, as the Son of God, sustained the old Kahal, so Peter is to sustain the new Kahal, the new Ecclesia or the new Church as a Rock.
  • In other words, there is a communication of the Divine Power of being a Rock from God to Peter. And when our blessed Lord told Peter that he was to the Rock that did not mean that God had His rights violated or that he had abdicated them.  He is the Rock, but He is the Invisible Rock and Peter is to be made the visible Rock of the Mystical Body.


Patra / Petros

If a technical reference may be permitted, in the Greek of Matthew where we have the words, “Thou art Peter and upon this rock I shall build my Church.” The word for Peter is Petros and the word for rock is petra.  Now in classical literature for example in Homer you find that word “petros” means a kind of a small rock, that is part of a great and tremendous rock like Gibraltar.

  • So our blessed Lord is really saying to Peter, “Thou art the True Petros of me the Divine Petra.” Both are persons.
  • Christ the Rock, was a person, Peter the Rock, was a person. If it has a visible body, the Church had Peter as its visible Rock foundation.  As an invisible spiritual reality, the Mystical Body had Christ in Heaven as its Spiritual Eternal Rock.


“I will build My Church:

  • ” Next, our blessed Lord saidI will build my Church, My Ecclesia , My Kahal.” (Matthew 16:18)

Our Lord did not say I will build my Churches.  The Church is his body.  Christ cannot have many bodies.  That would be a physical monstrosity.  So that the whole organic foundation of the Mystical Body is founded on a single man who was to have divine assistance.

  • Notice our Lord also said “I will build my Church.” This same word “build” is used in the book of Genesis.  In the Latin translation of the Scriptures and the vulgate it is exactly the same word that is used to describe how Eve was formed out of Adam and how Christ built his Church.
  • Adam was like an unfinished thing until Eve was formed. So, scripture says that Christ was to have His fullness in His Bride, the Church.
  • As Eve was built from Adam so the Church was built from Christ.


Next our blessed Lord says “The gates of hell shall not prevail against it, against the Church.”

Now here our Lord is not so much referring to literal gates but rather to an unseen world.   The word prevail, that is to say evil shall not prevail, means to overpower.



  • Our blessed Lord therefore assured Peter that his Church will be indestructible, indefectible, because the gates symbolized power. It was the place generally where counselors and men of power and government met.
  • For example, the book of Genesis says that Lot sat at the gate of Sodom. The book of Ruth says that Boaz took care of legal matters at the gate of Bethlehem. So too hell has its gate, it seat, its counsel, its treasury of power.
  • Now this will always be opposed to the Church but our blessed Lord says, “The gates of hell shall not prevail.” In other words, the Church will be indefectible through the ages.  And notice too that this privilege is not given to the person of Simon but is given to Peter and our blessed Lord said that he will be with his Church even under the consummation of the world.



Give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven and then whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth is bound in heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt loose on earth is loosed in heaven.  This means that whatever Peter commands or forbids he does it in the name of Christ.


Tremendous Power

What a tremendous power.  Earth and heaven become a single force.  Why the heavens almost seem to be an echo of earth, as if God were lending his ears in order hear what his Vicar Peter was saying.

  • This power is legislative because he can bind and loose the power of discipline, the power that will protect him from error, and there is no limit to it, for our blessed Lord said, “Whatsoever thee bind, Christ binds.”
  • Here our blessed Lord promised to confer this power upon Peter but there were other instances too in scripture where our Lord associated Peter with himself.


Prayed for thee:

  • One particularly interesting moment is the night of the Last Supper. All of the apostles were gathered together with our blessed Lord and our Lord speaks to Peter and said, “Behold Satan has claimed power over all of you, so that he may sift you as wheat.” 
  • Now notice the plural there. Our Lord is saying power over all of you.  The words of our Lord continue, But I prayed for thee that thy faith may not fail.  When after a while thou has come back to me it is for thee to be the support of thy brethren.”  (Luke 22:31-32)
  • Notice that our blessed Lord says Satan wants all of them. Now out of all, for whom does our Lord pray. Here He is not praying for the twelve, He is praying for Peter alone.

Power lives on:

  • He addresses him the second person singular and he does that because if the foundation stone crumbled the rest of the edifies would fail.

Our blessed Lord is also telling Peter that he is going to fail, as he will a few hours later when he will tell the maidservants, “I know not the man.”  But our Lord says that he will come back, he will come back at Pentecost and then he will be the support of the twelve.

  • In other words, it is in Peter the Vicar of Christ that the apostles or the bishops have their support and come within the hearing of the prayer of Christ.
  • Isolated and separated from Peter as the Vicar of Christ, the apostles are weak and were not to assume that this power was given only to Peter because he was not called Simon then.
  • Simon, indeed dies, but Peter lives on. Pius and Leo and Benedict and others die, but Peter continues under the consummation of the world.


Another instance of how our Lord associated Peter to himself was at the payment of temple tax.

It is the only time in scripture where God ever associates a human being with himself under the personal pronoun “we.”

  • Just think how proud you were when, as a child, you wrapped your father’s arms around you and said, “we will do this.” Now at the time of the payment of the temple tax when our blessed Lord told Peter to pay it but he said to “pay it for me and for   And then he adds, “That we may not scandalize.”  (Ref Matthew 17:23-28)
  • Here he is making himself one with Peter, he is associated with the master in a way no one else will ever be associated: “We” — Christ and Peter.
  • That is why all papal encyclicals begin with the word “We.”


Transfer of my Power:

Now this particular unity that existed between Petros and Petra, the Invisible Rock and the visible rock, is now carried on at the close of our Lord’s public life, or rather after the Resurrection.


Our Lord is fishing three times.  He says to Peter when he comes to the shore.  “Lovest thou me?” ( John 21:15 )

And after Peter affirms his love, because there can be no conferring of authority without love, our blessed Lord each time says to him, “Feed my lambs, tend my shearlings, feed my sheep.”

  • Here the power is conferred by the Good Shepherd to Peter the Shepherd. The flock is One because the Shepherd is One and one man is at the head of the flock.
  • In other words, the Church is to be made up of bishops and priest and people, as on earth our Blessed Lord associated with Himself, apostles, disciples and people, and Peter is to be the head of them all. And the words that our blessed Lord used in Greek were  

 (pronounced “bos-ko poy-mah’-ee-no”, “feed my sheep”)

  • In other words, you have the order, you have the jurisdiction, you have the authority. In order to feed my lambs, to feed by sheep, I am transferring My Power as Shepherd, to you.
  • Then our Lord told Peter how he would die. That he would be crucified. And Peter went to Rome where he was crucified.  He said that he was not worthy to be crucified in the manner that our blessed Lord was so he asked if he could be crucified upside down.
  • How fitting that was. For the Eternal Rock had told him that he was to be the Rock and after all where is the foundation rock to be placed if not close to the ground.

Church has a Shepherd:

  • So the Rock was laid. That rock became the foundation stone of the Church and from that day to this, the Church has a Shepherd, a rock, a key bearer, a pontiff, a bridge builder between earth and Heaven, a Vicar of Christ, a Pope, the Holy Father, the One Head of the One Body. That is how we know where the Church is. As they said in the first century,


“Ubi  Petrus, ibi Ecclesia.”


“Where ever Peter is, there is the Church.”

God love you

  1. In today’s lesson on The Vicar of Christ – what stood out the most to you?
  2. Why do you think Bishop Sheen gave the title “The Rock Man” to this lesson?
  3. How would you explain to someone seeking a deeper understanding of – the Vicar of Christ– his role in our Salvation?
  4. Now that you have learned more about The Vicar of Christ and his role in your Salvation – what changes do you think this will have in your daily life?



882. “The Pope, Bishop OF Rome and Peter’s successor, ‘is the perpetual and visible source and foundation OF the unity both OF the bishops and OF the whole company OF the faithful.'[LG 23.] ‘For the Roman Pontiff, by reason OF his office as VICAR OF CHRIST, and as pastor OF the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered.'[LG 22; cf. CD 2,9.]”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSTITUTION


936. “The Lord made St. Peter the visible foundation OF his Church. He entrusted the keys OF the Church to him. The bishop OF the Church OF Rome, successor to St. Peter, is ‘head OF the college OF bishops, the VICAR OF CHRIST and Pastor OF the universal Church on earth’ [CIC, can. 331.].”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSECRATED


1560. “As CHRIST‘s VICAR, each bishop has the pastoral care OF the particular Church entrusted to him, but at the same time he bears collegially with all his brothers in the episcopacy the solicitude for all the Churches: ‘Though each bishop is the lawful pastor only OF the portion OF the flock entrusted to his care, as a legitimate successor OF the apostles he is, by divine institution and precept, responsible with the other bishops for the apostolic mission OF the Church.’[Pius XII, Fidei donum: AAS 49 (1957) 237; cf. LG 23; CD 4; 36; 37; AG 5; 6; 38.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/orders.html#DEGREES


1778. “Conscience is a judgment OF reason whereby the human person recognizes the moral quality OF a concrete act that he is going to perform, is in the process OF performing, or has already completed. In all he says and does, man is obliged to follow faithfully what he knows to be just and right. It is by the judgment OF his conscience that man perceives and recognizes the prescriptions OF the divine law:
Conscience is a law
OF the mind; yet (Christians) would not grant that it is nothing more; I mean that it was not a dictate, nor conveyed the notion OF responsibility, OF duty, OF a threat and a promise…. (Conscience) is a messenger OF him, who, both in nature and in grace, speaks to us behind a veil, and teaches and rules us by his representatives. Conscience is the aboriginal VICAR OF CHRIST.[John Henry Cardinal Newman, ‘Letter to the Duke OF Norfolk,’ V, in Certain Difficulties felt by Anglicans in Catholic Teaching II (London: Longmans Green, 1885), 248.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/moral.html#JUDGMENT





100. “The task of interpreting the Word of God authentically has been entrusted solely to the Magisterium of the Church, that is, to the POPE and to the bishops in communion with him.”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/profess3.html#INTERPRETATION


869. “The Church is apostolic. She is built on a lasting foundation: ‘the twelve apostles of the Lamb’ [Rev 21:14.]. She is indestructible (cf. Mt 16:18). She is upheld infallibly in the truth: Christ governs her through Peter and the other apostles, who are present in their successors, the POPE and the college of bishops.”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church3.html#APOSTOLIC


881. “The Lord made Simon alone, whom he named Peter, the ‘rock’ of his Church. He gave him the keys of his Church and instituted him shepherd of the whole flock.[Cf. Mt 16:18-19 ; Jn 21:15-17 .] ‘The office of binding and loosing which was given to Peter was also assigned to the college of apostles united to its head.’[LG 22 # 2.] This pastoral office of Peter and the other apostles belongs to the Church’s very foundation and is continued by the bishops under the primacy of the POPE.”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSTITUTION




882. “The POPE, Bishop of Rome and Peter’s successor, ‘is the perpetual and visible source and foundation of the unity both of the bishops and of the whole company of the faithful.’[LG 23.] ‘For the Roman Pontiff, by reason of his office as Vicar of Christ, and as pastor of the entire Church has full, supreme, and universal power over the whole Church, a power which he can always exercise unhindered.’[LG 22; cf. CD 2,9.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSTITUTION


895. “‘The power which they exercise personally in the name of Christ, is proper, ordinary, and immediate, although its exercise is ultimately controlled by the supreme authority of the Church.’[LG 27.] But the bishops should not be thought of as vicars of the POPE. His ordinary and immediate authority over the whole Church does not annul, but on the contrary confirms and defends that of the bishops. Their authority must be exercised in communion with the whole Church under the guidance of the POPE.”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSTITUTION


899. “The initiative of lay Christians is necessary especially when the matter involves discovering or inventing the means for permeating social, political, and economic realities with the demands of Christian doctrine and life. This initiative is a normal element of the life of the Church:
Lay believers are in the front line of Church life; for them the Church is the animating principle of human society. Therefore, they in particular ought to have an ever-clearer consciousness not only of belonging to the Church, but of being the Church, that is to say, the community of the faithful on earth under the leadership of the
POPE, the common Head, and of the bishops in communion with him. They are the Church.[Pius XII, Discourse, February 20, 1946: AAS 38 (1946) 149; quoted by John Paul II, CL 9.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#LAY


937. “The POPE enjoys, by divine institution, ‘supreme, full, immediate, and universal power in the care of souls’ (CD 2).”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSECRATED


939. “Helped by the priests, their co-workers, and by the deacons, the bishops have the duty of authentically teaching the faith, celebrating divine worship, above all the Eucharist, and guiding their Churches as true pastors. Their responsibility also includes concern for all the Churches, with and under the POPE. “

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/church4.html#CONSECRATED


1354. “In the anamnesis that follows, the Church calls to mind the Passion, resurrection, and glorious return of Christ Jesus; she presents to the Father the offering of his Son which reconciles us with him.
In the intercessions, the Church indicates that the Eucharist is celebrated in communion with the whole Church in heaven and on earth, the living and the dead, and in communion with the pastors of the Church, the POPE, the diocesan bishop, his presbyterium and his deacons, and all the bishops of the whole world together with their Churches. “

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/euch1.html#LITURGICAL


1369. “The whole Church is united with the offering and intercession of Christ. Since he has the ministry of Peter in the Church, the POPE is associated with every celebration of the Eucharist, wherein he is named as the sign and servant of the unity of the universal Church. The bishop of the place is always responsible for the Eucharist, even when a priest presides; the bishop’s name is mentioned to signify his presidency over the particular Church, in the midst of his presbyterium and with the assistance of deacons. The community intercedes also for all ministers who, for it and with it, offer the Eucharistic sacrifice:
Let only that Eucharist be regarded as legitimate, which is celebrated under (the presidency of) the bishop or him to whom he has entrusted it.
[St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Smyrn. 8:1; SCh 10, 138.]
Through the ministry of priests the spiritual sacrifice of the faithful is completed in union with the sacrifice of Christ the only Mediator, which in the Eucharist is offered through the priests’ hands in the name of the whole Church in an unbloody and sacramental manner until the Lord himself comes.
[PO 2 # 4.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/euch1.html#MEMORIAL


1462. “Forgiveness of sins brings reconciliation with God, but also with the Church. Since ancient times the bishop, visible head of a particular Church, has thus rightfully been considered to be the one who principally has the power and ministry of reconciliation: he is the moderator of the penitential discipline.[Cf. LG 26 # 3.] Priests, his collaborators, exercise it to the extent that they have received the commission either from their bishop (or religious superior) or the POPE, according to the law of the Church.[Cf. CIC cann. 844; 967-969; 972; CCEO, can. 722 ## 3-4.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/healing.html#MINISTER










1463. “Certain particularly grave sins incur excommunication, the most severe ecclesiastical penalty, which impedes the reception of the sacraments and the exercise of certain ecclesiastical acts, and for which absolution consequently cannot be granted, according to canon law, except by the POPE, the bishop of the place or priests authorized by them. In danger of death any priest, even if deprived of faculties for hearing confessions, can absolve from every sin and excommunication.[Cf. CIC, can. 976; CCEO, can. 725.]

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/healing.html#MINISTER


1594. “The bishop receives the fullness of the sacrament of Holy Orders, which integrates him into the episcopal college and makes him the visible head of the particular Church entrusted to him. As successors of the apostles and members of the college, the bishops share in the apostolic responsibility and mission of the whole Church under the authority of the POPE, successor of St. Peter. “

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/orders.html#EFFECTS


2034. “The Roman Pontiff and the bishops are ‘authentic teachers, that is, teachers endowed with the authority of Christ, who preach the faith to the people entrusted to them, the faith to be believed and put into practice.'[LG 25.] The ordinary and universal Magisterium of the POPE and the bishops in communion with him teach the faithful the truth to believe, the charity to practice, the beatitude to hope for.”

To view the context, please visit http://www.christusrex.org/www1/CDHN/holy.html#MAGISTERIUM

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